Tag Archives: US war machine

The US Has a Vicious, Murderous Government Because Most US Citizens are Vicious, Murderous People Who Don’t Care About the Rest of the World

You like to “think outside the box” do you?   So do we: in fact, we have lived “outside the box” for so long we have forgotten what it’s like to think “inside the box”.  So here’s some “outside the box” thinking for you.  You’re welcome in advance!

As a public service to our working-class sisters and brothers around the world, we would like to take a moment to explain what, to the 95.5% of the world’s population living outside the United States apparently appears to be an unsolvable riddle: “Why is it that the seemingly nice, friendly people of the United States have such a vicious, murderous, warmongering government?”

The answer, brothers and sisters, is simple: the vast majority of the citizens of the United States are vicious, selfish, ignorant cretins who don’t give a shit how many of you are murdered by the US military so long as the standard of living in the US enables them to barely survive.  We like to tell people that so long as the price of gasoline remains below $5.00/gallon, the vast majority of the citizens of the United States will continue to not give a shit how many innocent women and children are butchered annually by a raping, murdering, torturing US military that the majority of US citizens consider to be “heroes” to the last man.   So long as the price of gasoline keeps falling, you can expect these scum to continue to give the US military a blank check to go ahead and kill as many people as the US capitalist class feels is necessary to maintain the economic status quo here in the United States.  And the rest of you – the 95.5% of the world’s non-US citizens – can all go fuck yourselves.

No one else is going to be honest enough to tell you that that is really what the vast majority of the shitty “American people” of 2014 think.  They’re so stupid that not 1 in a thousand of them even KNOW that the US only makes up 4.4% (and falling) of the world’s population.Fuck the rest of the world!is a common statement we hear from US workers all the time.  Living here in the United States is like living in an insane asylum full of chronological adults barely functioning at a grade-school level.

No one here in the United States – or in the rest of the world except ourselves – wants to address the fact that the overwhelming majority of the people of the United States have become so corrupted morally by the utter degeneracy of the US capitalist class that they simply do not give a rat’s ass how many men, women and children are murdered every year by “their” government in its endless and phony war on “terrorists” – terrorists who have largely been recruited, organized, trained and armed by “their” US Government.  So long as the stupid and selfish citizenry of the USA can barely afford to feed, clothe, shelter and amuse themselves they will continue to not give a shit about anything being done to their fellow human beings all over the world. by the execrable US capitalist class and its bought-and-paid-for government and its military war machine.

The US working class has been so completely brainwashed into believing the disgusting US corporate philosophy that “greed is good” and that every human being is responsible for their own welfare and owes absolutely nothing to any of their fellow human beings.   This philosophy is extremely popular in the US among its workers – a philosophy, by the way fully embraced by what large numbers of the stupid US working class sees as an “alternative” to the Republican and Democratic parties – the inane and inhumane “free-markets-for-free people” “philosophy” of  Libertarianism.   It is for this reason that we warn our working class sisters and brothers around the world that US workers in 2014 have come to resemble their closest historical precursors – the “good German citizens of Hitler’s Germany.

In fact, the citizens of the United States are almost exactly like the citizens of Nazi Germany in their self-imposed faux-ignorance of the realities of what their government is doing to the rest of the world – with one major exception, which only serves to make the viciousness of today’s US citizen all the more repulsive: in Nazi Germany, there was pervasive censorship of the news media far more comprehensive than what we see in the US today.  Though the German people in Hitler’s era were able to listen to shortwave radio broadcasts from around the world, they were subject to severe penalties for doing so.  In the United States today, though there is vast but usually subtle self-censorship of the news media and television, there is the Internet – and no criminal penalties for utilizing it to inform oneself about how the rest of the world perceives the USA.  But Americans are so apathetic and, frankly, stupid that they don’t want to be bothered using the Internet to read the vast amount of first-hand reports of US military atrocities being daily committed all over the world.  Instead, US citizens use their computers to entertain themselves and to keep themselves distracted from what is going on in the world… because when it comes right down to it, they simply don’t give a shit.

Like the vast majority of German workers under the Hitler regime, the vast majority of the US workers under the bloodthirsty Obama regime delude themselves into believing that things aren’t really all that bad; or if they are, that “there is nothing that we (meaning the US working class of 175,000,000 or so people) can do about it”.   That facile excuse for not giving a shit is utilized by almost every “nice” US citizen you ask about it.  Think we’re lying?  Give it a try!  If you know a native-born American citizen – black, white, Hispanic, Asian – it don’t matter – ask them about any important issue regarding the US government’s vicious policies being carried out in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Syria or Israel.  We’ll wager that you will quickly elicit either a blank stare accompanied by the sound of crickets chirping… and then a savage reaction when you challenge them on their offhand attitude to the monstrous brutalities being carried out all over the world in the THEIR NAME, utilizing weapons systems paid for with THEIR TAX DOLLARS to murder innocent women, men and children all over the Middle East, western Asia.

A typical reaction from a US citizen might be: “the US military is being used to fight terrorism – and that’s a good thing”.  They will get very defensive and start to get agitated – so press them a bit harder and you will finally get: “I don’t care about what’s going on in the rest of the world!  I care about what’s going on here!”

The one thing that American citizens hate more than anything is people who remind them and inform them of the crimes being committed by “their” government all over the world.  They resent being told by us about these things and they hate us for bringing this information to their attention because it strips away their ability to continue to pretend that they don’t know what’s going on.  They don’t want to read about US military atrocities in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Syria, Iraq or anywhere else because once they do then they are forced to openly admit that they aren’t going to do anything about it – because they just don’t care.  And they hate that!  US citizens want to be seen as being nice people who love everyone and who want to like others and be liked in return.  So they try to hide their inner viciousness with a veneer of benign ignorance.  They are so selfish that they wouldn’t try to change things even if they believed that they could, because that might make their lives a bit less comfortable than they are – and dull, conformist middle-class comfortability is, after all, the birthright of every US citizen, right?  (Well, every “white” US citizen anyway…).

You still believe that we exaggerate?  Try this: ask your American friends about “Fallujah”.  See if they even know what that word means.

Ask them if they heard about the four boys who were blown to pieces by an Israeli naval vessel in Gaza this year.  Ask them if they know how many women and children were murdered by their “hero” sons and daughters in the US military this year.   Ask them what they know about “Abu Ghraib” and see if they even have a vague recollection of what that name means.  And then challenge them on their callous indifference to the suffering of their fellow human beings at the hands of their own sons and daughters in the US military and see what kind of reaction you get!  Americans hate to be forced to reveal their inner hideousness!

Their historical memories of world-infamous atrocities committed by the US government are no better.  Ask ANY American how many people were killed in the Vietnam War:  their answer (if they can answer the question at all) will most likely be: “53,000”.  Of course, that’s only the number of Americans who were killed in the war.  They don’t know, because they prefer not to know and/or don’t care, how many Vietnamese were butchered by the US during the Vietnam War.  They have been brainwashed into believing that US veterans of the Vietnam War were “heroes” rather than “war criminals”.  “Don’t forget” they will remind you: “the people the US killed in Vietnam were all communists, so killing them was a good thing”!

Ask any US citizen about the US-imposed war against Korea in the 1950s and you will get a blank stare.  That war is unknown to most Americans because they don’t give a shit – except when they fatuously heap praises on veterans of that utterly senseless and savage war because, in their tiny minds, ALL veterans of US wars are “heroes”.  They have no idea that in the Korean War an estimated 3,000,000 Koreans were savagely butchered by the US military.  They don’t know or care that these “heroes” were ordered to, and did shoot down thousands of unarmed Korean civilians in war crime after war crime.   They don’t care enough to look into it – but they “know for sure” that the North Koreans are crazy, that their communist government is a threat to something that they call “world peace” which is under constant attack from crazy people all over the world and which is why they support the mission of the US military – which they idiotically believe to be “the defense of world peace”.

“But we Americans always give generously to charity; and the United States gives more money in foreign aid to poor countries than any other country in the world!” they will exclaim.  They believe these lies but they’ve never bothered to check the facts because they really don’t care.  They are satisfied with the APPEARANCE of their generosity, not with the reality or unreality of it.  They don’t give money to charity because they are good decent human beings: they give it because they are rotten, corrupt and vicious human beings – but they don’t want anyone to KNOW that!  So they pinch a few pennies and attempt to purchase absolution for their callous indifference to human suffering by making a token donation of a ten-thousandth of their income to charity every year – then they order their town or city council to drive the homeless out of their midst and demand that organizations like “Food Not Bombs” be prevented from feeding starving street people.  They don’t care that two of their favorite and largest so-called “charitable organizations” – the United Way and the American Red Cross – have been busted  for wasting tens of millions of dollars of donations on lavish salaries, offices and banquets for their wealthiest donors, or that they simply don’t even try to provide any kind of accounting at all for what they do with the hundreds of millions of dollars they rake in every year.  The indifference of the US citizenry is necessary in order for these vast charitable frauds to be perpetrated decade after decade.

So, what is to be done about this, sisters and brothers?  Especially by you, our working-class sisters and brothers who make up the 95.5% of the world’s population?

First of all: stop thinking that the United States is composed of really nice, compassionate human beings who are simply not aware of the monstrous crimes being perpetrated by the US capitalist class and its military all over the globe: the citizens of the United States don’t know about what’s going on because they don’t want to know and they don’t give a damn.  They are willfully ignorant, hoping that by remaining aloof to the suffering imposed on millions of their fellow human beings by the US Government they can continue to be perceived as being merely unaware of the suffering they are solely responsible for as citizens of the United States who have the unique responsibility for imposing their will on “their” national government.  The citizens of the US believe in their corrupted, amoral hearts that they are benefiting economically from the brutalities inflicted by the US military around the world and so they refuse to do anything to stop the atrocities.

Secondly: do not expect the situation to change any time soon in the United States.  There is not an inkling of any motion among US workers to start fighting even for their own rights, let alone for yours (the uprising in Ferguson, MO is very tiny and has set for itself political goals so feeble as to be utterly useless even in the narrow realm of fighting police brutality in Ferguson itself).  It is possible that things could change, and that’s why we continue to agitate for a socialist workers revolution here in the US: it would be the best thing for the whole planet if the US capitalist class and their state was overthrown by the workers of the US and replaced by a revolutionary socialist government – but it does not look very likely to happen any time soon, if ever.  The citizens of the USA, like their predecessors in Nazi Germany, are literally fat, dumb and grudgingly satisfied enough with the racist capitalist status quo to allow the US Government a free hand to brutalize and colonize the whole planet for the foreseeable future.  Do not expect the stupid assholes of the 2014 US working class to help you drive the US military and US corporations out of your countries in any way, shape or form.

The bottom line:  unless a major sea change takes place in the minds of the workers of the United States – and soon – it is going to be up to YOU – our working-class sisters and brothers OUTSIDE THE US – to band together worldwide and organize yourselves to do the same thing to the United States that the international working class was compelled to do when the Red Army of the no longer extant USSR smashed Nazi Germany in 1945.  There is no other way forward.  If the people of the United States continue to act like “good Germans” they are doomed to suffer the fate of the “good Germans” in 1945.  The world simply can not afford to wait for the relatively pampered, spoiled, over-entertained, over-amused, selfish, pro-capitalist, socialism-hating proto-Nazi US working class to start acting like civilized human beings.  Time is not on our side:  the US government is preparing to unleash a series of massive pre-emptive military assaults on any nation that dares to stand up to the lust of the US capitalist class for global domination of the world’s political and economic future – and the workers of the US are giving them a free pass to do whatever it takes to maintain the current economic status quo inside the US.  Declining gas prices are just going to increase the indifference of the US workers as they find a bit more change in their pockets every time they fill up their gas-guzzling cars at the service stations of America.

The future of the entire planet is at stake.   If 4.5% of the world’s population, due to its callous heartlessness, selfishness and untrammelled greed, must be wiped out so that the planet can survive, then so be it.  It’s a small price to pay!  No one will miss the United States when it’s gone – except brutal dictators and criminal bankers and capitalists who depend on the US military to drown every manifestation of revolutionary socialist working-class leadership in blood wherever and whenever it raises its heroic and noble presence among us.

It is high time that the working class of the United States stood up on its hind legs and started fighting against the encroaching fascism here in the USA and organized itself into revolutionary socialist workers parties dedicated to overthrowing the US capitalist class and its capitalist state and its hideous war machine and building a socialist workers republic!  The slogan “Either socialism or barbarism” has never been more sharply posed as it is today right here in the United States of America!

Workers of the World, Unite!

Independent Workers Party of Chicago

Revolutionary Greetings to the Workers Attending the 56th Annual Chicago Air and Water Show!

If an alien spaceship was to fly over North Avenue Beach this weekend during the Chicago Air and Water Show, undoubtedly some of the crew would laugh at the stupidity of the human race, madly applauding the spectacle of a display of weapons of mass destruction designed for the sole purpose of – destroying the human race. But it would be as likely that one member of their crew, in possession of a finer knowledge of the history of their own civilization, would point out to his comrades that “it wasn’t so long ago that we ourselves were struggling to evolve past the nuclear age”.

What you are witnessing this weekend is the singular spectacle of allegedly civilized human beings teaching their children to approve of our nation’s annual expenditure of hundreds of billions of dollars on weapons systems capable of bringing about the complete extinction of the human race. It’s a snapshot of life in the United States as humanity struggles through our own nuclear age, hopefully to a higher level of civilization – if we don’t kill ourselves first.

We see our fellow workers and their families arrayed on North Avenue Beach in Chicago to celebrate the thrilling technology our nation’s military can use to slaughter our fellow human beings – right in the midst of the City of Chicago, the murder capital of the USA, where the city government is contemplating the deployment of the Illinois National Guard, armed to the teeth, to patrol the city’s streets in order to “prevent violence”. The citizens of this fair city, you see, are so “up in arms” about gun violence taking place in many of the city’s neighborhoods – “senseless violence” they call it – that they are considering overthrowing their own Constitutional protections against the deployment of military forces to quell domestic disturbances by deploying the military (whose own weapons make the pitiful arsenals of the city’s gangs look like a box of water pistols) to “stop the violence”. It makes us wonder if there is to be found anywhere on this planet a nation as dumb as ours is.

“Why are our children killing one another?” we hear our neighbors cry. “Where does this savage impulse to kill come from?” “What can we do to stop the violence that threatens us on our streets, in our schools and in our workplaces?”

Is it so hard to figure out? The violence comes from the class that runs this country – the US capitalist class – that takes our unemployed daughters and sons and gives them jobs as soldiers, pilots and weapons designers, and who deploy our children all over the world to protect their investments overseas, and to slaughter anyone who dares to oppose the robber barons of the US capitalist class. Our children are taught to accept violence – real violence, the military kind – every day in school, where ROTC programs recruit young women and men to join the military and live a life of “adventure” – adventure that consists of rampaging across the face of the Earth killing their fellow human beings in defense of the U.S. capitalist class and their global investment portfolios. The news media tells us that the most heroic of all our citizens are “our” soldiers who are all “heroes” for “defending our nation”. Hollywood churns out movies and TV shows extolling the noble sacrifice of our nation’s armed forces, deployed all over the world to “fight for freedom” and to wage war on “terrorism”. Our children are taught to believe, by the capitalist class’ bought-and-paid-for politicians, that the final solution to every seemingly intractable human problem lies in bombing those recalcitrant people into submission.

But it isn’t just the US capitalist class and its government and media conglomerates that brainwash our children into worshipping the “military solution” to all human problems; it is YOU, fellow workers! who are teaching your children, by taking them to this festival of the weapons of mass murder and showing them how exciting it is, how beautiful the weapons are, how powerful armed women and men are to change the world for the better, that a better life is possible for us all through mass murder! You, who would raise hell if a swimming instructor “inappropriately touched” your son or daughter during a swimming lesson, and who scream “CHILD ABUSE!” when advertisements are mailed to your home showing a beautiful woman’s (almost) naked body, who think nothing at all of bringing your young and even infant children to the Air and Water Show to praise the glory of our nation’s ability to rain death and destruction on our working-class brothers and sisters all over the world!

Why do you, fellow workers, living here in Chiraq – the murder capital of the USA – bring your children to celebrate weapons of mass destruction which are being used – as you sit there on North Avenue Beach, idiotically “oohing” and “aahing” – in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Palestine and a host of other nations to butcher human beings – your fellow workers and their families?

Why do the same disgusting capitalist politicians like the odious Rahm Emanuel, in the middle of such violence taking place on the streets of Chicago, present to the citizens this festival of celebration of the revolting, savage aspect of the human race?

The reason is twofold. One: to dull your innate sense of hatred and revulsion for the weapons of war, to awe you with the power of the ruling class that daily robs you and your family of the necessities of life in order to spend hundreds of billions of dollars of wealth generated through your own sweat and blood and used to slaughter your fellow workers overseas – all in pursuit of the US capitalist class’ insatiable lust for PROFITS; and Two: to scare the hell out of you and your children so you will not dare to fight for your rights against forces poised to be unleashed upon YOU and YOUR FAMILIES should you ever dare to rise up against your exploiters! In the final analysis all this weaponry is designed to defend the filthy rich US capitalist class from “all enemies, foreign and domestic” – including YOU should you dare to fight for higher wages, to defend yourselves from the brutal racist cops rampaging through the streets of our nation armed to the teeth and daily shooting down in cold blood anyone who stands up to their brutality! YOU, brothers and sisters are the source of the fear engendered in the cold hearts of the US capitalist class, who are deploying their weapons of mass destruction throughout the land to protect the 1% from YOU, the working class, who they rob every day of the blood, sweat and tears of your family and its labor in the factories and shops of the capitalist class and whose sons and daughters are sent out to kill and be killed so the US capitalist class can amass even greater fortunes for themselves while you struggle to feed, clothe, shelter, educate and provide basic health care services for yourselves and your families!

These weapons of mass destruction, these highly-trained teams of assassins and murderers the capitalist class and its media hacks teach you to believe to be heroes your children should one day strive to be like, this machinery of mass murder you applaud has, in the final analysis, YOU and YOUR CHILDREN in its sights! Because only YOU have the power to rip the guns out of the hands of the capitalist class and their cops and military – and the capitalists fear your power to do that above all else! It is your children who pull the triggers on the guns and cannon; it is YOUR children who fly the planes, drop the bombs, and kill innocent civilians – families just like yours! Only YOU can put an end to this repulsive national worship of the Pentagon’s tools of mass murder that is the REAL SOURCE of the violence on the streets of our nation!

We are revolutionary socialists – Trotskyists – and it is a principle of our political movement that the working class of the United States – and that of all nations – has no enemies, since we know that all of the people of this planet, of every skin color and every religion and nationality – are descended from common ancestors that lived about 100,000 years ago. Science has proven to us that, as Karl Marx said more than 150 years ago, “All workers are brothers and sisters”. The workers and peasants of China are not our enemies; nor are the workers of Russia, North Korea, Vietnam, Cuba, Iran, Palestine, Pakistan, Yemen or any other nation you can name. All the workers of the world we consider to be our sisters and brothers. We understand that the real enemies of the workers are not our fellow workers overseas whom our national capitalist class tries to get us to hate; our real enemies are the billionaires and millionaires on Wall St. and on Main St., who systematically rob us of the product of our labor every time we go to work, every time we purchase anything and who try to get us to hate our fellow workers overseas so that they can get us to send our sons and daughters into the military where they can be used by the capitalists to defend their hundreds of billions of dollars of foreign investments all over the globe. In Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, all over the world, the US capitalist class is trying to seize the mineral wealth of other nations for their own selfish personal gain; and they teach our children the dark arts of war in order to steal through military conquest what they can not or do not wish to pay for. It is tax money systematically stolen from your paychecks every week that is used to pay for these weapons of mass destruction you are cheering for that enables them to go around the globe raping the environment and slaughtering the human beings that stand between the US capitalist class and the natural resources that they seek to steal in order to feed their unquenchable thirst for more and more money!

You see the Blue Angels? Imagine that those jets were on their way to your neighborhood to drop bombs on your house because you were the head of a political movement trying to organize opposition to the US war machine. Imagine what would happen to your children if those Ospreys were used to attack your family while you were celebrating a wedding in your yard; imagine those Navy Seals attacking your friends’ house next door. Imagine that it was not a T.V. show or a video game, but a real-life massacre like those that have happened repeatedly to families in Afghanistan, Iraq, in Palestine, Vietnam, North Korea and all over the world where the US capitalist class has deployed these very same weapons of mass destruction that you sit there and applaud, with your children joining in – in imitation of you.

You’d better think about it, because, more and more, the police forces of the United States are being given military-grade weapons; helicopters, grenades, machine guns and all the weapons of war necessary to defend the interests of the US capitalist class from what they KNOW is an inevitable struggle by the working class of the US to fight for higher wages and better working and living conditions. They know that, sooner or later, you are going to be forced to fight for your rights at work, and that you will seek to create political parties THAT THEY CAN’T BRIBE OR CONTROL to defend your rights as workers. You don’t realize this yet – but they do. And they are getting ready for you, as you can see every time the workers of Chicago try to oppose the machinations of the US capitalist class. The deployment of heavily armed police forces in military formations, armed with weapons of mass murder in the cities and even the small towns of the United States is not happening by accident. The capitalist class knows what it wants, and it knows how to get it – and it isn’t always going to be by asking nicely first – and then sticking it to you like they did to Chicago’s teachers last year. As the police response you’ve seen this week in Ferguson, Missouri proves (where the entire police force consists of only 53 cops): even in a tiny town like Ferguson, the police possess weapons indistinguishable from those given to US military units overseas – and they’re trained and willing to use them, children! The class war is coming home, and it is headed for your front door, brothers and sisters. The Obama Administration has even gone so far as to obtain from the US Department of Justice the legal authority to order the assassination of US citizens for writing things and for hanging around with people the US capitalist class doesn’t like! And why has the capitalist class given the NSA the green light to spy on every single phone call, Internet search and email you and your family sends to anyone, anywhere? Are they afraid of you, the loyal members of the US working class?

Now that we’ve drawn your attention to the reality of what it means to celebrate the weapons of mass destruction that the US capitalist class and their mass-murdering military, we’d like to put you on the spot and ask you: knowing all that we’ve told you, do you still wish to wave the flag of U.S. imperialism and teach your children to worship the U.S. war machine? If the answer is “yes”, then you – by your support of this war machine that is being unleashed every day against your fellow human beings – declare yourselves to be the enemies of human civilization and have absolutely no right to complain when you, personally, are held accountable for the war crimes being committed every day in your name. By supporting the U.S. war machine you must accept responsibility for the murders of civilians being committed every day, all over the world by the U.S. military and the C.I.A., who use the very same weapons of mass destruction you have bought, paid for (and which you worship) to commit mass murder and the assassination of untold thousands of your fellow workers around the world – and who now are even assassinating your fellow citizens!

Now that you’ve read this article, you know that the real reason why the U.S. military is deployed all over the world is not to “defend your freedom” – neither Iraq, Afghanistan, Iran, China, North Korea nor Cuba possess any means of attacking the United States, and the workers of those countries have never attempted to do so – but to defend the current and planned future foreign investments of the U.S. capitalist class in all these nations – investments being made not to improve your lives or the lives of the people where the investments are made, but simply to make the tiny number of U.S. billionaires and millionaires who own half our nation’s wealth – just that much more obscenely wealthy.  Now you know that the very same U.S. capitalist class that uses its war machine to commit mass murder around the world is the same gang of greedheads that robs you and your family blind every time you go to work or purchase anything from toothpicks to land mines – and you support this! 

And here’s another bit of information for you who worship your own exploiters and their weapons of mass destruction: now that you have read this article, you can no longer pretend to your friends and family that “you didn’t know” the truth about the U.S. capitalist class and what they are really about and what they are really using their military for!  By having read this explanation of precisely what it means to applaud and to teach your innocent children to applaud the murderous, repulsive war machine that the U.S. capitalist class uses to physically destroy every worker in the world who dares to oppose their global thievery – and in spite of this knowledge, still continuing to support the U.S. capitalist class and its war machine – you have become, now, a CONSCIOUS ENEMY OF THE HUMAN RACE!  Congratulations!

One more point we’d like to make before we let you go: you may think that the U.S. war machine can be counted upon to protect you from the very justified wrath of the workers of the world whom you declare to be your enemies by supporting the U.S. capitalists’ war machine that murders them… but know this:  the United States of America represents just 4.5% of the world’s population!  If you believe that there is a future for a nation that represents just 4.5% of the world’s population yet that thinks that it can – through sheer military brutality – force the other 95.5% of the world’s human beings into a state of abject surrender, you are wrong – and you and your nation are doomed to suffer the fate of the last genocidalist capitalist class which dared to attempt such an exercise in futility: the universally-hated German capitalist class that financed Adolf Hitler’s rise to power!

Enjoy the show!

IWPCHI